Le Mans (Sarthe), June 23rd.
This year the Le Mans 24-hour race returned to its normal status of counting towards the Manufacturers’ Championship for Sports Cars, because the Automobile Club de l’Ouest wisely decided to drop the limitations on fuel consumption and engine capacity, that they imposed last year. As a result all the important manufacturers entered strong teams of cars and fielded all the best drivers they could find, so that the line-up for this year’s race was most impressive.
The race itself resolved into a furious battle between the various teams in the opening stages and then, one by one, the big stars fell by the wayside and the race was completely dominated by Jaguars, not because they had set a fast pace and caused all the opposition to break up but because they wisely sat tight and let the opposition burn itself out. The first two hours of the race were as good as any Grand Prix and the pace was fantastic, with record laps of under four minutes and speeds of over 200 k.p.h. First Collins led with a 4.1-litre Ferrari but seized up after a few minutes, then Hawthorn in a similar car continued the furious pace until a front tyre tread came off, and this let Behra take an open 4.5-litre Maserati into the lead. All the while the rest of the top drivers and cars were thundering along trying not to get left too far behind, with the result that the overall average of the race was very high. The Ecurie Ecosse Jaguars and the other private Jaguars were not up amongst this opening “sprint,” but were sitting just behind it all, so that by the time 2½ hours of the race had been run and all the Italian cars had run into trouble, the Bueb/Flockhart Jaguar passed serenely into the lead and stayed there for the rest of the 24 hours, completely unassailable. As a free-for-all race the event was virtually finished by 7 p.m. on Saturday, and it was an excellent demonstration of a number of interesting things. A driver who has the flair for Grand Prix racing seldom has the ability to control himself for a 24-hour endurance run; the Italians seem to have little idea of just how long 24 hours really are; the British, and Jaguars in particular, have got the art of “racing” at Le Mans well and truly sewn up; and reliability with speed is a difficult thing to attain, even in a sports-car engine.
In the race for the outright win, or the Grand Prix d’Endurance as it is called, the Scuderia Maserati entered three cars, two 4.5-litre V8 models and a 3-litre six-cylinder model. Giving the plans of a “four-five” chassis to Frank Costin, the de Havilland and Lotus aerodynamic king, Maserati commissioned him to design a coupe body at the instigation of Stirling Moss, who was proposing to drive it. This very close-coupled coupe body was built by Carrozzeria Zagato of Milan, to Costin’s drawings, and though the general outline of the car was to the original design, the detail work was completely ruined due to the Italians’ complete lack of aerodynamic knowledge. The bonnet was designed to fit closely over the four downdraught carburetters and at the point of highest surface pressure a gauze-covered opening was arranged in order to feed the eight chokes. Being unappreciative of pressure variations across a surface at high speed, the Italians fitted an air scoop in front of the carburetters, which was not only too small to feed the engine properly, but also removed all possibility of the surface intake having any effect at all. Not content with this they then cut a large hole in the nose in order to get at the radiator filler cap, so that by the time the air flow reached the centre of the bonnet it was probably going vertically upwards instead of downwards. This little comedy resulted in the engine being quite unable to develop its full power, so that it would only pull 6,200 r.p.m. instead of the full 7,000 r.p.m. that it should. In addition, and even more classic than the carburetter nonsense, was the air scoop fitted by Maserati in order to cool the cockpit. This was placed at a low-pressure point just in front of the windscreen pillar where there was a rectangular opening to allow the egress of under-bonnet hot air, so that the heat was drawn out by the air flow over the body, according to the aerodynamic plans, but then scooped back into the cockpit; it was not surprising that the driving seat was like an oven. The enormous fuel-filler cap that stuck vertically up out of the aerodynamic tail was joyous to behold, while the carefree way that side windows and the body panels covering the exhaust pipes were discarded showed a delightful disregard for the finer points of air-flow. However, the crowning glory was the complete omission of a full-length under tray, the view under the car resembling a vintage car at its best.
When one considers the effectiveness of the bodywork on the Vanwall and the Lotus, it is easy to see that Costin knows what he is doing, so that Maserati had only themselves to blame for the fact that their coupe was little faster than the open 4.5-litre car. Fangio took one look at the confined interior of the car and said “No thanks,” so Schell was folded up and made to be co-driver with Moss. Behra was quite happy with the open 4.5-litre and had Andre Simon as co-driver, while Scarlatti and Bonnier drove the normal 3-litre car. The Le Mans race is full of regulations, and they fill a fair-sized book, so that after careful study Maserati nominated Fangio as reserve driver for the open 4.5-litre and the 3-litre. This crafty move meant that “the maestro” could sit back and let the opening two-hour Grand Prix blow itself out and then take over whichever car was positioned best. The French considered this very anti-sporting, but they could not alter the fact that the regulations not only allowed this sort of manoeuvre but encouraged it.
Although Moss held the coupe in second place for a while the car did not last long, for an oil pipe split and there was horrible vibration from the transmission. After a very long pit stop to repair the oil pipe Schell did a few laps, and then Moss took it out again but eventually retired when a rear universal seized. What happened was that the rubber cover that retains the grease in the outboard universal of one of the half-shafts split and, after all the grease had centrifuged out, the pot-joint seized. Exactly the same thing happened to the open 4.5-litre car when Simon was driving it and leading the race, only on his car the steel retaining ring flew off and pierced the fuel tank, so he was forced out for two reasons. The “four-five” bogy would seem to be still resident at Modena, but as some small compensation Fangio recorded fastest practice lap with the open car on the Thursday before the race, with a time of 3 min. 58.1 sec. — 203.526 k.p.h. (126 m.p.h.). The 3-litre Maserati was never in the picture during the race, and retired when the clutch disintegrated. The Maserati fortunes can be summed up as follows: the coupe was undoubtedly the “belle” of the pre-race scrutineering and publicity, the open 4.5-litre was the fastest car on the course, the 3-litre just did not count, and Fangio did not get a drive in the race, over which he did not weep any tears, but smiled blandly and looked forward to the next Grand Prix.
The Scuderia Ferrari were in a slightly better situation, fielding four factory cars, any of which could have been the winner. There were two 4.1-litre V12-engined cars, with four overhead camshafts, three four-choke downdraught Solex carburetters, i.f.s., de Dion rear, four-speed gearboxes in unit with the rear axle; in fact, the same cars that contested the MiIle Miglia and the Nurburgring 1,000 kilometre race. The first one was driven by Collins and Phil Hill, and the second by Hawthorn and Musso. A similar car, but of only 3.8 litres capacity, was driven by S. Lewis-Evans and Martino Severi, both making their first race appearance for the Scuderia Ferrari, the former well known for his “500” racing and Connaught driving, and the latter being the chief test driver at the Ferrari factory. The fourth car was perhaps the most interesting of the lot, and certainly the most promising. It will be recalled that an experimental car appeared at Nurburgring consisting of a modified Testa Rosa chassis fitted with de Dion rear end and a 3-litre Europa Gran Turismo engine and gearbox. This actual car was present at Le Mans but not used, for the next experimental model on these lines was proving even more successful. This consisted of Testa Rosa chassis unmodified, which is to say that it had a rigid rear axle mounted on coil-springs and controlled by radius rods, and the Gran Turismo engine was enlarged to 3.1 litres, using six double-choke downdraught Weber carburetters. In view of this crowd of carburetters in the middle of the vee of the 12-cylinder engine, the cylinder heads had been redesigned with the sparking plugs on the outside near the exhaust valves, instead of on the inside of the vee near the inlet valves. By comparison with the 4.1-litre cars this car was very small in overall size and certainly presented a greatly reduced frontal area, while the formation of nose allowed an excellent air flow over the tyres and brakes, with plenty of freedom for the air to escape out of the side of the car. It was driven by Gendebien and Trintignant and proved to be only a few seconds slower on lap times than the bigger-engined cars.
In practice the Hawthorn/Musso car was motoring very fast, and it continued to do so in the race, leading by 30 sec. in the opening stages, while Musso set the absolute lap record in the race at 3 min: 58.7 sec. — 203.015 k.p.h. However, all this high speed was too much for the engine and before Hawthorn handed over to his team-mate the oil pressure was sinking rapidly, and when it sank to zero and stayed there the car was withdrawn, but at least it had set a searing pace while it ran. The other 4.1-litre was never on form, breaking a piston in practice and starting the race with the left-hand cylinder block containing a new set of pistons, so that Collins should have taken the first few hours slowly in order to take the high spots off. Instead, he led the race on the opening lap and 15 minutes after the start was out with a seized engine, so that his co-driver Hill did not get a drive. The 3.8-litre Ferrari was far more potent than either Lewis-Evans or Severi were capable of controlling to the full, so in consequence they both took turns to circulate quietly and discreetly, avoiding getting involved in any battles, and were still running on Sunday afternoon when the race finished, taking fifth place overall. Their run was not without trouble, for the front brakes wore out completely and the mechanics changed all four brake shoes during the small hours of Sunday morning, which was a lengthy job involving the removal of hubs, drums and back plates. The experimental car was driven fast and furiously in the opening Grand Prix by Gendebien, holding fourth place for a long time and then moving up to third place, which it retained until midnight, but then the engine succumbed to the hard driving. For a Ferrari it was a very light car and its acceleration out of the corners was most impressive, while its small frontal area paid on the long Mulsanne straight. Of all the Ferrari entries this car was perhaps the most noteworthy.
The Aston Martin team entered three works cars, two of the new DBR1/300 (the actual cars that competed at Nurburgring so successfully) and an experimental 3.7-litre car. The two 3-litre cars were unchanged since their previous outing, and were driven by the same pairs of drivers, Brooks/Cunningham-Reid and Salvadori/Leston, while H. C. Taylor was held as reserve driver. The 3.7-Iitre car, being experimental, was entrusted to the Whitehead brothers. Although a six-cylinder with twin overhead camshafts, the 3.7-litre engine was not merely a bored-out 3-litre, being of completely revised design, having the disposition of carburetters and exhaust reversed to normal Aston Martin practice, and using six single-choke horizontal Weber carburetters and single sparking plugs. This new engine was fitted into a modified Lagonda back-bone chassis frame, using the Lagonda gearbox, this being the 4.5-litre V12 Lagonda built two years ago. Somehow the fortunes of Aston Martin at Le Mans never run high, and this year was no exception, even though Brooks demonstrated that the DBR1/300 could be made to go fast, holding fourth place in the opening stages and then getting into second position when other cars withdrew. After the excellent showing at Nurburgring both 3-litre cars had trouble in the rear-mounted five-speed gearbox, being reduced to one gear during the night. Brooks was unfortunate enough to hit the sandbank at Tertre Rouge and overturn, fortunately with no serious personal injury, and the Salvadori/Leston car finally gave up the unequal struggle of running round in fourth gear only, and ruined its clutch. The 3.7-litre car was little better off, never being in the picture at all, and finally going out before midnight with a broken gear-change mechanism.
Gordini made an attempt with a single big car, a 3-litre eight-cylinder as raced many times before, driven by Guelfi and Guichet, and though the former kept it among the tail end of the big cars in the opening stages of the race it lasted only two hours before it went out with engine trouble. There should have been another French hope in the shape of the two Talbot-Maseratis that raced last year. These had been rebodied during the winter by Campana of Modena, and looked like large Stanguellinis, but the poor old 2½-litre Maserati engines were quite incapable of dragging the cars along very fast. They were to have been driven by Bordoni/Burgraff and Halford/Loens, but practice times proved so pathetic that only one car was put on the starting line, with Halford as driver. On the starting line it stayed, for the clutch and gearbox gave up as it tried to get away and it never left the pit area. These two cars had been financed by Andre Dubonnet, the aperitif king, and though they looked very nice they were rather hopelessly prepared from the mechanical standpoint.
Finally, among the giants of endurance and speed, we come to the Jaguars, and if ever a make deserved every possible credit it is the Coventry firm with their D-type car. Having withdrawn from racing, the works team were absent this year, leaving all their racing in the hands of private owners, and it proved to be most profitable for Mr. Lyons, the result speaking very highly of the cars and the owners. The mainstay was the Ecurie Ecosse, who entered two cars, these being 1956 works cars now painted Ecosse blue and prepared by “Wilkie” Wilkinson and his merry men. One was a normal D-type, driven by Sanderson and Lawrence, and the other had an enlarged engine of 3.8 litres and was fitted with the Lucas low-pressure fuel-injection system used last year by the factory. This enlarged engine had the bore increased from 83 mm. to 87 mm., keeping the same long stroke of 106 mm., the actual capacity being 3,780 c.c. against the normal D-type’s 3,442 c.c. In all other respects the cars were unchanged from 1956, and when you look at the airflow on a D-type there is not much that can be changed. These two Ecosse cars were entirely separate from the Coventry factory, being run by David Murray and his team, while all the pit work was done by “Wilkie” and his two regular Le Mans mechanics, Stan Sproat and Ron Gaudion.
From the start Bueb refrained from getting involved in the “Grand Prix” and sat in fifth place until the “aces” blew up, handing over to Flockhart at the first refuelling stop in a comfortable second place, which became first place by 6.30 p.m. on Saturday, and the two of them kept the car in that position until the end of the 24 hours. So excellent was the Ecosse preparation and pit-work that nothing whatsoever was done to the car, apart from fuel, oil, water and tyres, and their second Le Mans win in succession was a personal triumph for everyone connected with the Ecurie Ecosse. As if to emphasise the excellence of the team, the 3½-litre D-type started off around 12th position, and by consistent and reliable running gradually worked its way up to second place by early Sunday morning, giving Scotland a rousing first and second in the overall classification for the 24 hours. It might have been thought that the Jaguar victory was solely a tribute to Ecurie Ecosse, but to prove the suitability of the D-type to Le Mans, three more Jaguars started and finished. Duncan Hamilton and Masten Gregory were sharing a 3.8-litre version, running on large Weber double-choke carburetters, and were favourites for a good position had they not been in trouble during the night. The ignition timing slipped very slightly out of adjustment and caused the engine to run hot, with subsequent burning of the exhaust manifolds. This ended in a split which allowed flames to enter the cockpit on the over-run, and after trying in vain to effect a temporary repair the car had to suffer a very long stop while the split pipe was removed and welded, at the same time the ignition fault being discovered and rectified. In the opening stages Gregory ran comfortably around seventh or eighth position, Hamilton then taking over and moving up to fourth position towards Saturday night, until the aforementioned trouble delayed them. Soon after the start Gregory recorded the fastest time over the measured kilometre on the Mulsanne straight, with a speed of 287 k.p.h. (approximately 178 m.p.h.). Although this car was a private entry, it benefited from having “Lofty” England and other Jaguar factory personnel on the time-keeping and direction, and factory mechanics doing the pit work. Jaguar, like Mercedes-Benz. have withdrawn from active racing, but somehow the people at the factory just cannot keep away from the pits. You can stop the finance of a firm being interested in racing, but you cannot stop the individual who has racing at heart. Also benefiting from the help of factory mechanics was the Equipe National Belge, who were running a standard D-type driven by Rouselle and Frere. They were all set for third place on Sunday morning when Rouselle came to rest on the far side of the course with trouble in the contact-breaker. Being a practical mechanic he effected a temporary repair and got the car back to the pits, where it was put right and continued, to finish fourth overall, the third place being taken by another privately-owned D-type driven by Jean Lucas and “Jean-Marie,” two French drivers who circulated consistently and steadily, if not fast.
With five D-type Jaguars starting and five finishing, in first, second, third, fourth and sixth positions, the 1957 Le Mans can truthfully be said to have been a Jaguar benefit. That it was not a hollow victory can be seen by two things: first the opposition that fell by the wayside and secondly the average of 183.2l7 k.p.h. for the winning car, which was a new record for the 24 hours. Ever since Jaguar first tackled Le Mans they have made excellent showing, but this year must count as their finest victory, and when it is realised that the same basic engine and gearbox have been used since 1950 it will be appreciated that not only have the Coventry firm been carrying on a very successful development programme, but it shows the wisdom of specialising in one type of racing, as distinct from the Italian firms who have-a-go at all types of racing and flit from one design to another before any serious development gets under way.
Leaving the giants of the race, who win the event outright on distance and speed, we must now turn to the “race within a race,” namely the classification on index, or handicap. Every year there is a mathematical sum which takes into account the capacity of any given car, and the answer to the sum gives the leader on handicap. Now unless a big car goes fantastically fast for its size, this mathematical calculation favours small-capacity cars, especially 750-c.c. cars. In 1955 the sums were upset by Mercedes-Benz, who went indecently fast with only 3 litres of engine, so that they were leading on handicap and distance. When they withdrew things returned to normal and a French 750.c.c. car won the Index of Performance, as so often happens. This year, however, the mathematics were all right but the result was all wrong for the French, for a lone British 750-c.c. car led the Index for the whole 24 hours. This was the Climax-engined Lotus running in its first event, and very much an experitnental project. Taking a Mark XI Lotus chassis, Colin Chapman reduced the weight at every point until the car scaled a mere 430 kilogrammes, against 480 kilogrammes for a normal 1,100-c.c. Lotus-Climax. The engine of the 750-c.c. car was modified by Climax, having a 45-mm. stroke in place of the normal 66-mm. stroke, and retaining the standard bore of 72 mm. In all other respects the engine was identical to the 1,100-c.c. unit, except that it ran at 8,000 r.p.m., while the only visible difference to the whole car was the use of the Formula II magnesium wheels in place of the usual wire-spoke variety. The Coventry-Climax firm was not at all happy about Chapman racing the 750-c.c. engine as they thought it unreliable yet it ran the whole 24 hours without missing a beat, and all the Lotus team did was to pour petrol and oil into the car. It was running on Weber carburetters and used a B.M.C. gearbox and rear-axle unit, and was driven by Allison and Hall, neither of whom put a foot wrong throughout the whole race. They not only carried off the Index prize but also the 750-c.c. class against strong opposition from D.B., Panhard-Monopole, and Stanguellini.
Lotus had another official entry in the form of a Mark XI fitted with a 1,500-c.c., twin-overhead-camshaft Climax unit, as built for Formula II racing, it being coupled to an M.G. MGA gearbox and B.M.C. differential unit. This engine Climax knew to be reliable and recommended that Chapman should rely on this for his Le Mans success. This car was driven by Mackay-Fraser and Chamberlain, two American drivers, and in practice the former broke the 1,500-c.c. lap record and was seconds faster than the best factory Porsches; Chapman also tried it out in practice and found it very fast indeed. However, just before practice ended a valve broke and ruined the engine, and the car had to be posted a non-starter, but it also meant that the first reserve car could now start, and as this was a Lotus 1,100-c.c. the two American drivers were transferred to this car. Like the single-cam 750-c.c. engine the single-cam 1,100-c.c. engine ran like a clock, and this car not only won the 1,100-c.c. class but also finished second in the Index of Performance, giving Lotus as creditable a win on handicap as Ecurie Ecosse achieved in the General Classification. In addition to these two cars there were two private 1,100-c.c. Lotus-Climax cars driven by two French drivers, Hechard/Masson, and two British drivers, Walshaw/Dalton. Both these cars finished the race, though the French drivers had two set-backs, first running out of fuel so that Masson had to push it back to the pits, and secondly having all the clearance on one valve disappearing and running on three cylinders for a time, but then going back on to four cylinders for no accountable reason and finishing the race in a healthy-sounding condition. Just as Jaguar finished all the cars they started in the race, so Lotus did the same, starting four cars and finishing four. It was as big a triumph for Hornsey as it was for Coventry, while the single-cam Climax engine came through with flying colours, more than making up for its twin-cam brother. Until this year the French 750-c.c. cars have always been considered fast, but now Lotus have set a new standard for speed from a 750-c.c. car.
Also in the 1,100-c.c. class were two more Climax-engined cars, a Cooper driven by Brabham and Raby and a coupe Arnott driven by Russell and Taylor. The Cooper suffered minor bothers, but finished nevertheless, while the Arnott was much too heavy for its size and went out quite early in the race with a broken valve.
With the 1,500-c.c. Lotus being a non-starter this category was left entirely to Porsche, with three works entries and two private ones, but, unlike previous years, only one car finished, and that was in a sick state. Mainstay of the factory team were Maglioli and Barth with the 1957 model that appeared in practice at Nurburgring, this car having a new chassis frame, lighter and lower than the 1500RS model, with new front suspension using ball-swivels in place of king-pins, the trailing-arms spaced wider apart vertically, new turbo-fin front brakes, spare wheel mounted horizontally in the nose of the car, centrally-mounted steering box, with equal-length tie-rods, and the oil-cooler unit built into the surface of the lid covering the forward-mounted fuel tank. The rear end of the car was unchanged from last year, having low-pivot point swing axles, and the engine was standard 1500RS, now giving nearly 140 b.h.p. This car was running extremely well until it was eliminated by running into the wreckage of the overturned Aston Martin that Brooks had crashed. The other two factory Porsches were standard 1500RS models, fitted with the new turbo-finned front brakes, and driven by Herrmann/von Frankenberg and Storez/Crawford. The first pair went out before midnight with a burnt piston and the second pair retired in the 24th hour of the race with a broken crankshaft. The private cars consisted of a production RS driven by Hugus and de Beaufort, which suffered from blocked fuel pipes early in the race, but then got going all right and was the only finisher in the class and eighth overall. The other private entry was a French-owned Carrera Speedster, which went out quite early with a burnt piston. The whole Porsche entry were obviously running rather close to the limit of compression-ratio and carburation, and when the Herrman/von Frankenberg car broke its piston the new Type 718 car was pulled in and larger jets fitted to its Weber carburetters. For once Le Mans was not a convincing Porsche victory, and they only just managed to claim a class win. However, the new lightweight car showed good potentiality while it was running and the accident was no fault of Maglioli’s.
The 2-litre category contained a rather miserable collection of sports cars, few of which could even challenge the 1,100-c.c. Lotus of Fraser and Chamberlain. Not long ago 2-litre cars were the outstanding category in sports-car racing, but this year they have virtually disappeared into a negative quantity. There were three Testa Rosa Ferraris, driven by the Belgian pair Bianchi/Harris, the French pair Tavano/Peron, and the mixed pair of Picard/ Gunther. The Belgians came off best, finishing in seventh place, having run regularly and well, controlled by the Equipe National Belge, while the other two retired, the French pair just after midday Sunday with a burnt-out valve and the mixed pair soon after the start with a broken water pump. Also in this class was a six-cylinder Gordini driven by Rinen/Lacaze, but this was in trouble with its oil system almost before the start of the race and did not last long. The “Sebring” Frazer-Nash of Stoop, with Jopp as co-driver, toured round until after lunch on Sunday, when the oil pipe to the pressure gauge broke and let all the oil out, the leak not being discovered until it was too late. There were two French-owned Maseratis as (an) early four-cylinder model and a very old six-cylinder model, neither of which indulged in any serious racing, though the A6G was still running at the end of the 24 hours. Finally, in the 2-litre group was an A.C.-Bristol driven by Rudd and Bolton, and this ran like a train throughout the 24 hours, not being fast enough to beat the Belgian Ferrari but finishing without trouble.
Once again Le Mans proved to be not a motor race but an endurance run for engines and brakes more than anything else, for suspensions and shock-absorbers hardly get used, while drivers are no longer allowed to indulge in feats of endurance. It is true to say that Le Mans hardly serves any useful purpose any more, other than being a glorious weekend for the British industry, a holiday and fair for the French public, and an extremely well-organised spectacle for the world in general. To succeed at Le Mans a team must make sure it has no Grand Prix drivers in its midst not any machinery resembling a Grand Prix car. In fact, this “manifestation of high-speed touring” is a tradition in itself, and as such long may it reign, but on no account must we muddle it up with competitive motor-racing.
No praise can be high enough for Jaguars’ convincing demonstration of how to tackle the problem of endurance, while Chapman’s efforts with the whole of Team Lotus is probably the best effort that has yet been attained by the British at Le Mans.
Grand Prix d’Endurance — 24 Hours — Classification on Distance
Weather: Fine, misty during night
1st: I. Bueb/R. Flockhart (Jaguar 3.8-litre) 4,397,108 Kms. 183.217 k.p.h.
2nd: N. Sanderson/J. Lawrence (Jaguar 3.5-litre)
3rd: J. Lucas/”Jean-Marie” (Jaguar 3.5-litre)
4th: F. Rouselle/P. Frere (Jaguar 3.5-litre)
5th: S. Lewis-Evans/M.Severi (Ferrari 3.8-litre)
6th: J. D. Hamilton/M. Gregory (Jaguar 3.8-litre)
55 starters; 21 finishers
Fastest lap: J. M. Hawthorn (Ferrari 4.1-litre), 3min. 58.7 sec. — 203.015 k.p.h.
Index of Performance Handicap:
1st: C. Allison/J. K. Hall (Lotus 744-c.c.) 1,308 index figure
2nd: H. Mackay-Fraser/J. Chamberlain (Lotus 1,100-c.c.) 1,260 index figure
3rd: L. Cornet/J. Perrier (D.B. 744-c.c.) 1,208 index figure