Alta

Sports and Racing Cars

Fifty years ago, in 1931, the Alta Car and Engineering Company Ltd. was formed by Geoffrey Taylor, then 27 years old and the owner of a small home-built sports car, the object being to build production versions of this car. Taylor had been earning a living doing contract machine work for the nearby ABC company close to where he lived in Kingston Hill, in SW London. Late in 1927 he began building himself a sports car, not only to his own design, but also of his own making, especially engine components such as crankshaft and connecting rods. His objective was an 1,100 c.c. car that was not only small and light but also ultra-low as he felt that most of the sports cars of those days were too high to achieve good handling. From the Rubery Owen catalogue of those days he selected a proprietary channel-section chassis side-member design, which when turned upside down gave him what he was looking for. A pair of these side-members provided the basis for his car and the axles and springs were mounted above the chassis rails, instead of underneath in the more conventional manner. Half elliptic springs were used at the front and trailing quarter elliptic springs were used at the rear. The 4-cylinder engine was mounted equally low in the chassis and the finished car set new standards for the time.

The engine was made in aluminium, with cast-iron wet cylinder liners and there were two overhead camshafts driven by a vertical shaft and skews gears from the rear of the crankshaft. Valves were at 90-degrees in the alloy cylinder head and seated on steel inserts. Bore and stroke were 60 x 95 mm., giving a capacity of 1,074 c.c. , on a 7.6 to 1 compression ratio the power was said to be 49 b.h.p. at 5,200 r.p.m. and the engine was safe to 6,200 r.p.m. All this work was done in the stable-block of the family home on Kingston Hill, using the minimum of machinery, enthusiasm and hard work making up for any lack of facilities. Having completed the car Taylor needed a name for it and he chose Alta, the name of a town in Alberta, Canada, which he had come across in a novel he had been reading. He chose this name for no other reason that that it appealed to him. This first Alta was registered in November 1928 and given the Surrey number PK 4053 (see illustration). Naturally it was soon a familiar sight around the neighbourhood and it made its debut in competitions, for this was one of Geoffrey Taylor's aims, in the London-Land's End trial of 1930, in which it achieved a Bronze Medal. The following year it competed again in the London-Land's End Trial and this time netted a Silver Medal.

By this time Taylor was all set to begin producing further examples of his "prototype" and had registered the "Alta Car and Engineering Company Ltd.", in January of 1931 with a share capital of 1,000 £1 shares all owned by Taylor himself. Dissatisfied with local contractors' ideas about building him a factory on a piece of land he owned at Tolworth on the Kingston-by-Pass he got stuck in and built his own factory for a fraction of the cost and in a fraction of the time and in April 1931 he was able to announce in the motoring press that the 1,100 c.c. Alta sports car was available for £350. Like many small motor manufacturers Taylor was averse to numbering his first production car as No.1, at he considered his owned car, PK 4053, as the prototype and started at 10. This meant that the first production can was No.11, completed during the summer of 1931 and sold to a Mr. Last of Littlehampton. It had a short life for in the diary of the works manager, H. J. Griffiths, there is a note which reads ". . . completely smashed and written-off. Feb. 1932". Meanwhile PK4053 was still in regular use by Geoffrey Taylor and was used for publicity and advertising purposes, as well as for experimental work and as a general works hack. The second production car to be built was No.12 and this was delivered to the Viscount Curzon in December 1931 and was registered GT1617 (see illustration). The works notebook mentions that an allowance of £120 was made on an MG and £140 on a Morris Cowley coupe, taken in part-exchange, the MG later being sold at a profit and the Morris Cowley at a loss! Viscount Curzon subsequently became The Rt. Hon. The Earl Howe, CBE, DL, JP. and today is Patron of the Alta Register.

Number 13 was an engine sold to Ron Horton for his Henna Special, mentioned in Motor Sport in April 1978, and this achieved the first competition success for the name Alta. It was fitted with an Amherst Villiers supercharger and set up a class record at Shelsley Walsh in 1932. Three more cars were completed and sold in 1932, one of which was a 4-seater model and two in 1933. Meanwhile Taylor was still running his own car and looking after his customers' cars as well as doing development work on the engines for a couple of people who were racing their cars. In 1934 the Scotsman A.J. Cormack bought Alta number 21S expressly for racing and at the end of the season he set up a new lap record for 1,100 c.c. cars on the Brooklands Mountain Circuit. In February 1935 Pete Whitehead took delivery of 24S and in May 1935 A.C. Lace bought 25R1S, these two cars being registered respectively, AER 884 and DPJ 929, and both were used in all forms of racing. By this time Taylor was making his own Roots-type superchargers and all manner of improvements had been made to the engine. The skew gear drive to the camshafts had been replaced by a train of straight cut gears, but as these proved to be too noisy, they were replaced by single-roller chains. The original crash-type gearbox was replaced by an ENV pre-selector gearbox and all the modifications were first tried out on Taylor's own car, PK 4053. In addition he was developing a 1,500 c.c. version of the engine and in the middle of 1935 he built the first pure racing Alta, for A.J. Cormack. This followed the basic layout of the 1,100 c.c. cars, with underslung chassis frame, but the engine and gearbox was set slightly to the left so that the driving seat fitted between the right-hand chassis side-rail and the prop-shaft.

By this time the 1,100 c.c. cars were no longer being built, and 25R1S was the last one. Twelve cars had been built, from No.11 to No.25, with three of the numbers being given to engines only. The new series of 1 1/2-litre "offset" racing cars started at No.52 and six of these were built, for Cormack (52S), R.R. Jackson (53S), J.P. Wakefield (56S), J.H. Bartlett (57S), Frank O'Boyle (58S), and Philip Jucker (59S). Two road-going sports cars were built in this series, 54S for Dr. Williams, a supercharged 2-litre registered FF4515, which was subsequently re-registered E0Y8 and later still EVG436, and a supercharged 11/2-litre (55S) registered DPG 167 for W.W.S. Bennett.

It was now 1936 and the name Alta was becoming quite well known in British racing circles, and there had been one or two sorties out of the country into International events. Geoffrey Taylor was also more interested in racing than in production and the greater proportion of the factory effort went into competition activities, he himself becoming a well-known figure in sprints and speed trials, both in PK4053, continually up-rated with all the latest developments, and with the "offset" car which Jucker had bought (see illustration). In 1937 there appeared an entirely new Alta racing car, No. 61IS, the letters denoting "Independent, Supercharged". This was a narrow single-seater with the driver positioned centrally over the prop-shaft and all-round independent suspension by a system of vertical sliders and coil springs (see illustration). This was delivered to Philip Jucker on April 27th, 1937, but sadly he killed himself in it a month later practising in the Isle of Man for the races at Douglas. The wreckage was rebuilt and sold to George Abecassis in 1938 and it became the most well-known Alta of them all. Painted silver with red wheels this car was raced extensively during 1938 and 1939 and while it did not win any major events, it was very successful in the smaller National events. At the time the ERAs and Maseratis were ruling the roost in 1 1/2-litre class racing, but Abecassis and the silver Alta not only stirred them up, but beat them a number of times at the Crystal Palace, Brooklands and in speed trials and hill-climbs. Two similar cars were built, one for Hugh Hunter and the other for Tony Beadle, the former being a 1 1/2-litre, the latter a 2-litre. Beadle's car, No. 67IS, was the ultimate pre-war Alta, with a tubular chassis frame, double-reduction gearing rear axle, giving a low prop-shaft line, and all the latest developments in engine, suspension and brakes. It was delivered in August 1938 and by mid-1939 Beadle was beginning to get to grips with the car and it was matching the works 2-litre ERA. But then the war put a stop to everything. In amongst the building of the single-seater cars Taylor was also building sports cars on the "offset" type of conventional chassis and as the war approached he was completing a new single-seater car with all-round independent suspension by torsion bars.

To keep the business solvent the factory had been doing Government contract work on engineering, and marine development work on Ford V8 engines, so that when war broke out the Alta Car and Engineering Co. Ltd. turned over fully to Government work. Between 1931 and 1939 Geoffrey Taylor and his small work-force had built twelve 1,100 c.c. cars, six "offset" racing cars, four pure single-seaters, and seven 1 1/2 / 2-litre sports cars, a total of 29 cars, each one built by hand. In an article in the Scottish magazine Top Gear in 1954 it was stated that Taylor built 160 cars in the 1,100 c.c. days! Such is the imagination of the journalist. [I think he meant 16.—Ed.]

After the war Geoffrey Taylor was keen to get back into the racing game and announced a new Grand Prix Alta in November 1945, as it was pretty obvious that the racing revival would be centred around supercharged 1 1/2-litre cars. Post-war difficulties in the supply of materials delayed his new car until 1948, when GP1 was delivered to George Abecassis. It was a neat single-seater with a tubular chassis following the lines of the 1939 cars, but suspension was by double-wishbones and rubber blocks in compression. The engine was an improved version of the pre-war 4-cylinder and Taylor built his own synchromesh 4-speed gearbox using some proprietary components. Although GP1 showed some flashes of brilliance it was not a success, nor were GP2 (for Geoff Crossley) and GP3 (for Joe Kelly), though equally they were not total disasters, but they could not match the opposition from Alfa Romeo and Maserati. The 4-cylinder Alta engine in 2-litre form unsupercharged was taken up by Abecassis and his partner John Heath, to form the basis of their successful HWM cars, and Taylor redesigned his post-war Grand Prix car into a 2-litre unsupercharged car for the growing Formula 2 in 1952/53. Four of these Formula 2 cars were built and a fifth one was on the stocks that was going to have a fully streamlined, totally enclosed body, but it was never finished. Alongside HWM the Connaught firm was expanding rapidly and they contracted Alta to supply 2 1/2-litre versions of the 4-cylinder engine for their B-series cars for Grand Prix racing in 1954. The famous victory by Tony Brooks at Siracusa in 1955, when he beat the works Maserati team, driving a Connaught started the rise of Great Britain in Formula 1 racing and the Connaught was powered by one of Geoffrey Taylor's Alta engines, whose origins go back to the home-built special he put into production in 1931. By 1956 Connaught were waning and Geoffrey Taylor's health was not of the best so after completing the last batch of 2 1/2-litre engines he closed down the Alta works at Fullers Way, Tolworth, Surrey. Sadly his health deteriorated and he died in 1969 at the age of 65. In the mid-1970s Geoffrey's son Mike resurrected the company in nearby Epsom, but it never really got going and it was but a brief flutter. The name of Alta may not have the aura of ERA, Maserati, Bugatti or Alfa Romeo, but none-the-less it holds an important niche in the history of British motor racing and was the result of the endeavours of one man. Fifty years after the formation of the Alta Car and Engineering Company Ltd., Motor Sport is pleased to acknowledge the efforts of Geoffrey Taylor. We are also indebted to Grahame Fleming and the Alta Register for photographs and much information, the Register this year celebrating its 25th year of existence. - D.S.J