Origin and Development of the Roesch Talbots
The specialised articles on famous makes have become a feature of Motor Sport. Many Talbot cars are still giving excellent service and, particularly following the article on “Sunbeams Between the Wars” in the December 1949 and January 1950 issues, we have been asked repeatedly for an article on the Talbots. We are therefore pleased to be able to offer the required material from data and interviews which we have obtained from Georges Roesch himself, the talented designer of the pre-Rootes Talbots. Apart from the academic interest of articles in this series, they undoubtedly give pleasure to owners of the older cars who delight in discovering which model they possess and how their cars fit into history.—Ed.
The Clement Talbot Co., Ltd., was founded in October, 1902, by the Rt. Hon. the Earl of Shrewsbury and Talbot and Monsieur Clement, famous French motor car and airship builder. The cars produced were noted for their high performance and reliability, culminating in the brilliant achievement in 1913 of being the first car in the world to cover over a hundred miles in the hour.
In 1916 Clement Talbot Ltd. advertised for a designer to produce a post-war car and Georges Roesch was selected. Born and educated in Geneva be was brought up as a child amongst the early motor cars, served his time in his father’s automobile repair works whilst studying and then went to Paris when France led the world in automobile and aircraft engineering. Trained in design under Marius Barbaroux of Delaunay-Belleville and later under Louis Renault, he came to England to the Daimler Co., Ltd. early in 1914.
In 1919 he had produced a post-war 12-h.p. car of arresting performance and style, which was the first to have a spare wheel stored out of sight, when Clement Talbot Ltd. was sold to the Darracq Syndicate, who also acquired later the Sunbeam Co., Ltd., the new organisation became known as the Sunbeam, Talbot and Darracq Combine.
In order that the three associated firms should not compete with each other it was decided to produce what was at the time a very advanced and attractive small car, the two-seater 8/18 Talbot originally planned in France. The sale of this model, however, quickly proved disappointing and so Georges Roesch was given the task of producing the four-seater 10/23.
Subsequently further changes in organisation were made and Roesch left to go to Darracq near Paris. He was called back to Talbot towards the latter part of 1925 to find an almost idle factory with a variety of models which would not sell profitably, the staff and workers reduced to skeleton proportions, and an atmosphere of gloom prevailing.
The demand for light cars had greatly increased but prices had dropped. The selling price of the 10/23 could not be reduced to compete on account of the limited manufacturing capacity of the factory and the enormous cost which would have been entailed to renew its equipment for large quantity production.
The reader who has difficulty in getting a new car today should know that at the time competition from foreign and particularly large-engined top-gear-performing American cars was very great in spite of the 331/3 per cent. McKenna duties. These were the days when every make of car made in the world could be seen on the roads of this country and as a result motorists were discerning.
The 14/45 Policy
The apparently hopeless position in which the Clement Talbot Co., Ltd. found itself was however the opportunity for which Mr. Roesch had patiently waited. There was no time for arguments, immediate action was needed and the creation of something with a new appeal was the only solution. It had to be a car able to take the place of existing non-paying models and upon which all energies and resources could be concentrated. In addition, a new and therefore small market was needed, to begin with, to suit the limited capacity of the factory at the time. So the formula had to be a large good-looking and comfortable car which would be of strikingly simple and light design so as to have an attractive appearance and performance and be as economical to run as to manufacture. The basis of the new vehicle was to be a small six-cylinder engine of remarkably clean lines with a structure and reciprocating parts very light and stiff and a combustion chamber to stand a high compression ratio, to step up revs. and power by 50 per cent. over contemporary practice. Thus the size and cost of the transmission was also reduced. It was to Louis Coatalen that Roesch submitted his ideas, who approved them and gave him the free hand to go ahead for which he and his team will ever be grateful.
The factory, admirably situated a few minutes from Hyde Park, was self-contained. It had its own diesel power generating plant and a useful private testing track with four steeply banked corners.
The complete chassis with all the units were manufactured there except for the frame and accessories. The manufacture and assembly of bodies took place close by, at Acton. What this factory lacked in up-to-date equipment was more than made up for at the time by the skill, resourcefulness and devotion to duty of its admirable and homogeneous team of enthusiastic workers. It was ready to prove that, given the lead, it could save the old firm and succeed against odds.
Almost before pencil was put to paper the price of the new Talbot was fixed at £395 for the open touring car. This target was attained. It was then as simple as that, for there was yet nothing concrete to base this figure upon and any hesitation in fixing it would have meant a doubt about success and a loss in effort and time. Furthermore, the car had to be produced straight from the drawings, if it was to be at the next Olympia Show; that is to say, all patterns, dies and tooling equipment had to be made at once and material placed on order for a first sanction of a thousand cars. This was the minimum quantity necessary to show a profit, which was happily secured after the first year thanks to the renewed confidence and the enthusiastic help received from all suppliers and Clement Talbot’s faithful agents. The call made on them for new methods and processes was exacting, but nothing proved too difficult.
It is worth relating that during the 1914-1918 War Roesch had designed a 600-h.p. aero-engine which may be claimed to have been the first attempt to produce a streamlined power plant complete with its water cooling and lubrication systems and all its accessories thus capable of being readily interchanged on an aeroplane. This design was, however, turned down by the Air Ministry without any reason being given. This was published in the Automobile Engineer of March, 1942.
In about 1921 the War Office issued a tender for a 30-cwt. subsidy lorry capable of travel in India without boiling up to the limit of its power on any gear. An outstandingly successful prototype, the K25, resulted which was never subsequently required by the authorities. A complete description was published in Engineering, August 10th, 1923.
To compensate for these two disappointments and whilst producing the 10/23 model Roesch had redesigned one of these 1,060-c.c. overhead-valve push-rod engines to give increased power. An output of 56 h.p. at 6,000 r.p.m. was obtained in 1922, corresponding to 53 h.p. per litre. The maximum engine speed attained was 7,650 r.p.m. and the compression ratio was 8.5 to 1. The car in which this engine was fitted lapped Brooklands at over 90 miles per hour. With this experience in the firm’s background no one had any doubt that the new high-speed engined car would be a success.
The 14/45 Design
The new production model Talbot was to have a 10-foot wheelbase and a very low and wide frame stiffened by an “X”-member and shaped to the lines of the body. The accent was on simplicity, to reduce weight, materials and labour to a minimum. Every part was specially designed, including the Rotax electrical equipment which incorporated a 12-volt dynamotor for silent starting.
The small overhead-valve engine gave the big car ample performance with a small tax and insurance, which in those days were very attractive to buyers. The six-cylinder engine was of 61 by 95 mm., 1,666 c.c. Rated at 13.8 h.p., it gave a conservative and smooth output of 46 h.p. at 4.500 r.p.m., corresponding to 28 h.p. per litre or only half that of the experimental 10/23. The cast-iron cylinder block and top half crankcase in one was very narrow and compact and supported a stiff disc-web crankshaft machined all over running in four 50-mm. diameter plain bearings. The helical timing pinion was fitted at the front and carried the enclosed torsional friction damper with a spring drive for the dynamotor which was bolted direct to the front of the engine. Thus no driving belt was used.
The high engine speed called for the greatest care in lubrication and the methods used are only beginning to be adopted on the popular cars of today.
The oil pump was a separate unit fitted in an inclined position beside the front bearing so that its driving pinion could mesh direct with the helical timing pinion and its body and suction pipe could be situated towards the centre of the oil sump. The pump was thus running at engine speed and capable of a large output. The oil intake was of large diameter to ensure flow at the low temperatures and was surrounded by a coarse metal gauze filter accessible from underneath. The oil pumped from the sump was not allowed to lubricate any bearing without it first going through a fine gauze petrol filter of large surface which was situated on the pressure side of the pump with a by-pass returning the surplus oil to the intake side of the pump gears. In this way only the oil actually passing through all the bearings was pumped out of the sump, ensuring therein a minimum disturbance of the lubricant thus facilitating foreign matter settling at the bottom of the case.
The filter was very accessible at the side and in front of the engine and could be withdrawn without polluting or spilling oil. It was combined with the oil-filling orifice and the breather which was fitted with a coarse gauze filter. The fine pressure filter gauze became fully effective when coated with carbon. The need for cleaning it was indicated by reduced pressure on the oil gauze. This system is now known as the Full Flow type. All oil conduits were drilled; no oil pipe was used except that which went to the gauge. Even this pipe was later discarded with the use of the oil warning light. The crankcase could easily be emptied without crawling underneath the car by pressing down the oil level dipstick into a bayonet joint thus operating the drain valve.
The connecting-rods were of H-section very stiff and finished in a coining die. To ensure also a high load capacity and reduced fatigue to the big-end bearings the white metal was cast direct into the rod to a thickness of only 0.020 in.
Piston construction received particular care. The piston was made in two parts, the skirt which had to act as a bearing being made of 0.040 in. thick special cast-iron to reduce friction to a minimum while the crown, which acted as a gas-seal and heatconductor, was made as a Y-alloy aluminium die-casting. To obviate wear and hammering of the rings in their grooves they were made very thin. Five rings were used, three for compression and two at the bottom of the skirt to scrape the oil. The crown of this piston was spigoted into the skirt and the two parts were secured together by the hollow case-hardened gudgeon pin itself held by a bolt in the small end of the connecting-rod. This piston design justified its cost by showing under test that it generated the least friction compared with other types. lt was later adopted by Sunbeam where steel was substituted for cast-iron.
To avoid any uneven thermal deformation of the cylinders and valve seats, water was made to flow uniformly through passages completely surrounding all of them. Thus minimum bore and valve-seat wear was to result with a new degree of reliability.
The camshaft was driven through a silent plastic gear wheel meshing with the crankshaft helical steel pinion. The light in-line vertical overhead valves fitted with double coil springs were operated by push-rods and rockers oscillating with minimum friction on knife edges. The very light tappets were small, short hollow case-hardened pistons, instead of the then common mushroom type so as to provide a better guide right down to the cam where it was needed to take the side load. The push rods were like ball-ended knitting needles made of 100 tons Vibrac steel. The common practice still used today of carrying the tappet adjustment on either the moving rocker-end or push-rod, thus needlessly increasing their weight, was never used on any of Roesch’s high-speed engines. Only the fulcrum of the rocker was adjustable on the 14/45 by being capable of sliding in a fixed support and of being locked by a set screw. The valve-gear lubrication was under pressure with the oil coming from the crankcase duct through one of the studs which was hollow, fixing the cylinder head to the cylinder block. An adjusting valve in the form of a thread the length of which could be altered allowed the oil to flow into the distributing tube which had a hole above each rocker. A fast drip would issue when the engine was idling. In this way an exceedingly light and simple valve gear was obtained which further showed at the time that high rotating engine speeds were not only possible but would also give improved life,
In 1925 the magneto with hand-controlled ignition was in general use in this country. This method was, however, quite impractical in Roesch’s view with the higher compression and speed of the new engine and he adopted the American Delco Remy coil and battery system with an automatic ignition advance. With 12 volts instead of 6, as then used in America on low compression and low-speed engines, a twin contact-breaker and speed-controlled distributor, reliable and automatic ignition was achieved at all loads and speeds of the new engine. It was found that the compact combustion chamber characteristics were particularly well suited to this simple innovation which improved engine efficiency and made driving more carefree.
The distributor was driven by the camshaft through right angle helical gears. It was slightly inclined in the centre of the engine and was connected by short cables to the sparking plugs screwed in the detachable cylinder head. The plugs were also at an angle and situated between the push-rods. Water passages cooled them all round.
The cooling system was also quite original. Thermo syphon circulation was used with very free passages through the cylinder block and its head. It was aided by a fan cast integral with the flywheel running in a partly open pit. To eliminate any possible distortion to the honeycomb radiator and the need for flexible pipes the radiator was mounted in a unique way on supports cast integral with the cylinder and crankcase block. On the right-hand side the support was hollow and constituted the water outlet from the radiator and the cylinder block inlet. Under this support was fitted an easily accessible tap which could drain quickly the whole system. The left-hand mounting was a solid one. Rubber joints were used. An aluminium water manifold was bolted at the side of the head and ran along its whole length. Thus water was circulated through the engine and was led by a rubber hose to the top radiator inlet. In this way the risk of water leaks through chassis deformations and bad rubber hoses, which had plagued the early motor cars, was reduced to a minimum.
A Smith five-jet carburetter was fitted at the front of the straight tubular cast-iron manifold on the off side of the cylinder head feeding the six cylinders by three siamesed inlet ports. This manifold was cast in one with the ribbed exhaust pipe above it and thus was heated along its length. Petrol feed was by Autovac from a rear tank. The accessible filler at its side had a fine gauze filter and incorporated a dipstick, which also served as a spanner for the articulated concealed luggage-grid tightening nuts. A reserve of two gallons was obtained by simply unscrewing the petrol-tank cap two turns to close a vent valve. When the tank was filled the filler cap was again secured home.
To the ribbed aluminium sump of the engine was bolted the gearbox. A chassis cross-member supported it as well to enable the removal of the sump. The flywheel was thus running in the open above the crankshaft axis. To this flywheel was fitted a single disc clutch designed to eliminate friction and thereby the need for lubrication. The presser plate was attached to the flywheel by three leaf springs equally placed around its periphery thus centering the plate rigidly but permitting it to move axially for engagement without the friction of sliding guides. This feature has recently been adopted by a world-renowned maker of clutches for motor vehicles (Borg & Beck). A readily adjustable self-locking flange was additionally screwed into the pressure plate to vary the pressure upon it given by the small coil springs. The withdrawal ball-race was enclosed and actuated direct by a short lever mounted on the clutch-pedal shaft which was in turn carried on the gearbox and thereby also lubricated by the latter.
The four-speed gearbox with its right-hand change and sliding gears was sturdily built and formed a unit with the engine to which the rear axle was attached by means of a spherically-ended torque tube within which the universal joint was also automatically lubricated and completely protected from external dirt. The gear ratios were 4.0, 2.28 and 1.47 to 1. The gear-change lever was well at hand on the right-hand side, working in a gate level with the floor boards and the hand-brake lever was slightly in front. Both levers were carried also on the gearbox, working inside the frame and also lubricated automatically.
The rear axle was of a new design which has lately become popular, consisting of a compact and stiff-centre malleable iron casing housing the differential and bevel gears and closed by a cover at the back. On either side flanged tubes were bolted to it which in turn had a similar flange bolted to the brake carrier and wheel bearing housing. What is now common practice was introduced in the form of an axle shaft forged or made integrally with its wheel hub-fixing flange. Owing to the greater rigidity of the axle construction smaller gears could be used with less deformations and wear. Adjustments were provided for the bevel pinion and crownwheel. The gear ratio was 5.875 to 1. The wheel ball bearings were automatically lubricated from the centre casing and care was taken to prevent oil ever to leak into the brake drums by an annular gully designed to collect any leaking oil and to lead it to waste. The oil seals were made of cork.
The steering was of the worm and babbitt-nut type, where the latter was mounted on a crank operating the drop-arms. The aluminium steering-box was fixed high on the frame to give the right inclination to the column and an ideal position to the sprung wheel. In the centre were mounted the throttle control, dimming warning signal and direction-indicator switches. All connections to the front axle were by sealed ball joints lubricated from the tubular steering-rods used as oil reservoirs which alone needed to be filled at very rare intervals. The joints were self-adjusting for wear and were the forerunners of the modern steering joint. Full lock was obtained with 2.24 turns of the wheel from lock to lock.
The front axle was of normal design with slight camber and castor with a ball-thrust bearing on the large case-hardened swivel pin on one side and a plain-thrust bearing on the other to give the right feel. To eliminate wear case-hardened bushes were also used instead of bronze. The wheels were mounted on taper roller bearings efficiently sealed as on the rear axle to prevent oil ever reaching the brake drums and ensure efficient lubrication for very long periods.
The suspension was by very wide thin-leaved springs all round fitted with the then new Silentbloc rubber bushes eliminating the need for lubrication except between the leaves. The front springs were semi-elliptic with a shackle at the front to ensure correct geometry of the steering layout and freedom from road reactions on the steering wheel.
To avoid roll a low chassis was used narrowed at the front to allow for front-axle movement. Front chassis rigidity was ensured by using the engine structure to tie firmly the chassis at four points. This method demanded great care in balancing the engine to elintinate vibrations which would have been transmitted to the body mounted on the frame.
At the back, quarter-elliptic springs were used to obtain low unsprung weight of the live axle. The thick front part of the spring was rigidly clamped in two directions in a bracket rivetted to the frame and the light rear flexible part was anchored to the axle by a shackle. Damping was ensured by adequate and robust friction shock-absorbers. Presumably because quarter-elliptic springs were used on cyclecars the suspension of the new car was received with considerable adverse comments, yet the vehicle showed itself capable of superb roadholding and today the trend of development is to cut down unsprung weight.
The brakes were the same all round. Large 14-in, diameter pressed-steel drums of high carbon content were used and adjustment to each of them was easily made by an outside wing-nut locked by a spring and operating a wedge at the fulcrum of the shoes. The latter were cam-operated by a transverse tube at the rear and by Perrot universally-jointed shafts at the front. No balance gear was used and the brakes remained constant and even in operation.
In those days a car could be easily spoiled by the body fitted to it and Georges Roesch took every precaution to make sure that the extra large, heavy and overhanging body fancied by some coachbuilders of the time could not be fitted! In consequence, the body space was strictly defined by the chassis frame forming the valances, the front mudguards with their hollow stays to protect the wiring to the head and side lights, the upright V radiator, the bonnet and pressed-steel dashboard containing the tool box under the bonnet and supporting the instrument board inside the body. The appearance of the back of the car was also determined in a way all its own. It was shaped by the large rectangular 14.5-gallon petrol tank suspended in three points under the frame on top of which a neat concealed folding luggage carrier was fitted. The latter also effectively limited the length of the body which could thus not overhang at the back. On top of the concealed luggage carrier when it was folded or underneath when loaded was mounted an articulated combined unit carrying the centrally illuminated number plate and central rear light together with a direction indicator consisting of two arrows capable of being lighted alternatively by a switch on the steering wheel to show a change of direction or together to indicate stopping. This was the first car so fitted as standard by a manufacturer. In view of today’s controversy of the trafficators versus flashing lights it may be that this first Roesch system now seen on many coaches and buses is after all the best. The two arrows were also fitted later to the radiator with tell-tale lights on the dashboard.
The dashboard was designed as a pressed-steel structure carrying a self-contained instrument board inside the body and the tool and junction boxes readily accessible inside the bonnet.
Up to this time the wiring of cars was generally left to a skilled wireman but in this case it was designed in every detail to put an end to short circuits so often experienced in those days with wire-chafing against sharp corners or left to vibrate. For simplicity, the earth-return system was used instead of the double pole arrangement largely in vogue on better cars then. And to improve reliability every cable was fitted inside special ducts or armoured covers and could also be easily traced separately through the main junction box containing the cut out, all the fuses and the wiring diagram. Only the headlight circuit was not fused to avoid the possibility of a sudden blackout. The 12-volt battery was of 66 ampere-hours capacity. Another innovation was that the wiper was fitted at the bottom of the opening windscreen instead of at the top, which had been the practice up to this date.
This was, briefly, the new 14/45 model which without previous development proved to be a technical tour de force and became the sensation of the 1926 Olympia Exhibition. So many orders were booked that all was set for effective production. The car was finally tested on the Continent in January 1927. An output of 50 cars per week was soon reached and a maximum of 100 per week was attained to restore the firm to prosperity, happiness and fame.
From now on there was time to develop and perfect the car. Georges Roesch, who loved to use a car under the most varied conditions and to drive fast with complete disregard for the mechanism, took his new model for extensive tests on the Continent for his summer holiday. He soon found its weaknesses. He drove it all out for 3,000 miles and although it stood the test without a breakdown of any kind, boiling was experienced on mountain passes, the 14 in. dia, brakes were too hard to apply, and the front mudguards and spare wheel mounted on the chassis frame at the side would shake loose. At the same time note was taken that the steering was so light and accurate and the roadholding so good that much higher speeds could be safely used.
Apart from modifications made at the time to improve production a good many changes were made to the 14/45 when the 75 model was being designed and later introduced in 1929. The battery size was increased to 75 amperes, the radiator honeycomb block was changed to a film type, the flywheel fan which had been found inefficient and unnecessary was discarded and pressure cooling which is now the fashion was then introduced. In this way loss of coolant became a thing of the past. A 16-gallon petrol tank was also adopted in common with the new 75 model.
The brakes were redesigned with larger 16-in. diameter drums, servo action at the front was used, and steel shoes replaced the die-cast aluminium ones to reduce clearances necessary due to differential expansion within the drum when the latter became very hot. Cable operation was also introduced for the front brakes to obtain a better action and to save weight and cost. The cables were completely enclosed and protected from water and dirt and lubricated with oil from the engine, for by this time central lubrication had eliminated any need for the grease gun throughout the car.
The gearbox was also modified to have a silent third speed to contain the clutch withdrawal race and its operation, and to be automatically lubricated by the engine. The ratio became 3.64. 2.013 and 1.367 to 1.
Thus gradually the Talbot reached a state of development when distances of several thousand miles could be covered without any attention other than filling with petrol and maintaining the level of oil in the engine at distant intervals. This result was beginning to be Roesch’s idea of motoring reliability and economy! Talbot cars had ceased to be temperamental and could be depended upon at all times. The clean, simple and all enclosed design of the engine and transmission did not encourage tinkering and only expert skill could satisfactorily deal with the work when an overhaul was needed. It is on this principle that the modern practice of interchanging units is based.
The 75 Model
The new car had quickly achieved success and sooner than later its power-to-weight ratio would need to be increased. It is thus that the 2¼-litre 75- and 90-type engine came to be designed to go into the 14/45 chassis.
The larger bore and stroke of 69.5 by 100 giving a capacity of 2,276-c.c. and a rating of 18 h.p. were easily accommodated in the same engine length by arranging the cylinders to be equally distant from one another and providing seven bearings to obtain maximum crankshaft support and stiffness. The main bearings were 60 mm. in diameter and the shaft and part of the moving parts were fully counterbalanced. The same valve gear as on the 14/45 was used but the valves of thin shallow tulip shape were enlarged, particularly the inlet one, by spreading their centres and without cutting down water cooling round the exhaust seats. This was done by undercutting the oval combustion chamber above the joint which it made with the cylinder block between the cylinders. In this way an adequate joint was provided which just cleared the valve head on withdrawal and a large passage was also given round the valve to insure a smooth gas flow. The valve steel used was austenite H.R.1. made by Hadfield. This material was found to be the strongest available to stand the temperature and to be proof against corrosion by Ethyl fuel which was promptly adopted when it first appeared in this country.
The V radiator was mounted on the engine in the same way as on the 14/45 and was now fitted with automatically-operated shutters by a centrally situated thermostat. These shutters were fitted with stainless steel pins working in brass bearings and could he relied to remain always free in their action. The whole radiator except the block was designed and made at the works. The top rubber hose used on the 14/45 was replaced by a nickel-plated brass tube sealed by rubber joints to stand an increased internal pressure. A water pump with integral ducts was bolted to the front of the cylinder block without losing in length. Its spindle had no bearings in the pump but was bolted direct to a timing gear-driven shaft automatically lubricated, protruding from the crankcase and also carrying the pulley driving the fan situated above by a belt. The overhanging spindle was made of nitrided steel (then just introduced) to provide a hard and non-corrosive surface to the gland through which it came out of the pump body.
A Zenith updraught carburetter was mounted centrally on a three branch aluminium manifold with a hot-spot contacting the exhaust pipe above. A mechanically driven petrol pump was fitted on the other cool side of the engine and driven by the camshaft.
The larger clutch, of the same design as the 14/45, had its withdrawal ball bearing enclosed in a larger gearbox of similar design to the 14/45. The transmission was reinforced with a bigger propeller and axle shafts.
Hydraulic shock absorbers of the vane type were also introduced to better control the suspension at higher speeds.
A slightly larger steering of the same type as on the 14/45 was used to allow throttle-starting controls, warning-signal knob, head lights, dimming and direction-indicator switches to be all mounted on top of the steering wheel. Full lock was obtained with 2.21 turns of the wheel from lock to lock.
A new instrument board was mounted on the dash. By removing the black polished cellostoid front cover all instruments and wiring connections were uncovered and readily accessible. The board contained a speedometer, with trip, clock, petrol gauge, ignition and pressure warning lights, direction indicator tell-tale lights, windscreen wiper, ignition, starter, half-charge dynamotor and lamp switches, ammeter, instrument-board light switch with dimming rheostat, plug-in lead; also a lock to cut out all the electrical connections or to lock the switches in any position. All instruments were edge-lighted which could be regulated for intensity. The dials were black with white figures and devoid of any chromium capable of reflecting in the windscreen. When the headlights switch was on the two headlights could be controlled from the steering wheel. In this connection it may he recalled that to counter the glare of headlights Mr. Roesch had his own simple and most effective solution. The off-side lamp beam was slightly dipped and trained towards the left side of the road. The near-side lamp had a straight-ahead beam which could be switched off to present a non-glare approach to the oncoming car. The accurate speedometer and gauges had both English and metric figures. The. battery was increased to 90 ampere-hours. Incidentally, the model-designations of the 14/45 were: 1927 and 1928, AD; 1929, AF; 1930, AG; 1931, AG and AQ Scout, A075 and A090; 1932, AQ Scout, AV AM75, AM90 and AV105.
(To be continued)